By Lisa C Ng, Andrew K Persily, Steven J Emmerich
16 reference structures were outlined by way of the U.S. division of power, and created as EnergyPlus enter records, to be used in assessing new applied sciences and helping the advance of strength codes in pursuing development strength potency advancements. Infiltration premiums within the EnergyPlus versions of the reference constructions have been enter as consistent airflow charges, and never calculated in response to demonstrated construction airflow concept. to be able to help extra physically-based airflow calculations, in addition to indoor air caliber research, versions of the sixteen reference structures have been created within the multizone airflow and contaminant shipping software CONTAM. a few extra inputs needed to be outlined for the CONTAM types, and alterations within the inside zoning have been required, to extra realistically account for airflow. Annual airflow and contaminant simulations have been played in CONTAM for 6 of the structures. whereas the assumed infiltration charges in EnergyPlus don't realistically replicate affects of climatic conditions, there are transparent relationships among the outside air swap premiums calculated through CONTAM and climate. moreover, the envelope airtightness values assumed in both procedure are visible to have an immense influence at the air swap charges. Contaminant analyses have been played for occupant-generated carbon dioxide, unstable natural compounds from indoor assets, open air particulate topic, and outdoors ozone. The airflow and contaminant calculation effects supply an invaluable baseline for next use of those types to enquire techniques to construction air flow and different applied sciences which are meant to at the same time decrease development power intake whereas retaining or enhancing indoor air caliber.
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Additional resources for Airflow and Indoor Air Quality Models of DOE Reference Commercial Buildings
4 GJ. ) results. ) results. ) results. ) results. For all of the buildings, except the Hospital, the differences in calculated infiltration sensible load between the CONTAM and EnergyPlus (tight) models were 10 % to 60 % of the total energy consumption. For the Hospital, the differences in calculated infiltration sensible load were only 1 % to 5 % of the total energy consumption because the energy consumption for the Hospital is the highest among the six simulated buildings. ) results. Note that the values in Table 6 are total sensible loads over one year and that the differences between the CONTAM- and EnergyPlus loads are more significant for individual hours when the weather conditions lead to higher infiltration rates.
847 1363 1 89 1 60 22 306 Daily peak contaminant concentrations Min. Max. ” values only apply to the zones in each building for which contaminant concentrations are reported (see Table 7 for selected zones). 31 Figure 20 to Figure 25 show the average and peak CO2 concentrations for the six simulated buildings. The differences in these values among the selected zones reflect variations in occupant density and outdoor air intake per person. For example, Figure 24a shows that the guestrooms in the Small Hotel have higher daily average CO2 concentrations than the Front Lounge and Meeting Room even though the maximum occupancies in the guestrooms are less.
Plots (a) of Figure 14 to Figure 19 show that generally there is a non-linear relationship between system-off outdoor air change rates calculated using CONTAM and Ws. This dependence is expected since indooroutdoor pressure differences due to wind are related to the square of the wind speed. ) models compared to the EnergyPlus (tight) models, as reflected in plots (b) of Figure 8 to Figure 13. 1), the system-off air outdoor change rates calculated using EnergyPlus are constant, whether plotted against ΔT or Ws.
Airflow and Indoor Air Quality Models of DOE Reference Commercial Buildings by Lisa C Ng, Andrew K Persily, Steven J Emmerich