By Halvorson, Mueger.

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**Additional info for Algebraic quantum field theory**

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That the closure of the graphs of these operators are graphs of linear operators (see [Kadison and Ringrose, 1997, p. 155]), which we denote by φ(x) = a− (x) + ia+ (x), (9) ia− (x). (10) π(x) = a+ (x) − It then follows that φ(x) and π(x) are self-adjoint, and on a dense domain D in F(H), we have [π(x), φ(x )] = i δx , δx = i δ0 (x − x ), (11) 51 where now δ0 is a completely legitimate mathematical object — viz. the probability measure supported on {0}. Consider the (discontinuous) representation x → V (x) of the translation group on l2 (R) defined on the basis elements {δy : y ∈ R} by V (x)δy = δy−x .

22 Remark. If a net O → R(O) of von Neumann algebras on H satisfies property B and nontriviality, then the hypotheses of Prop. 21 apply to algebras R(O1 ) and R(O2 ) when O1 and O2 are strongly spacelike separated. Notes: For a comprehensive review of pre-1990 results on independence of local algebras in AQFT, see [Summers, 1990]. For some more recent results, see [Summers, 1997; Florig and Summers, 1997; R´edei, 1998; Halvorson and Clifton, 2000; Summers and Buchholz, 2005]. 4 Intrinsically entangled states According to Clifton and Halvorson [2001b], the type III property of local algebras in AQFT shows that it is impossible to disentangle local systems from their environment.

So, the state vectors in Fock space include a state where the are no particles (the vector lies in the first summand), a state where there is one particle, a state where there are two particles, etc.. Furthermore, there are states that are superpositions of different numbers of particles. One can spend time worrying about what it means to say that particle numbers can be superposed. But that is the “half empty cup” point of view. From the “half full cup” point of view, it makes sense to count particles.

### Algebraic quantum field theory by Halvorson, Mueger.

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