By Chrétien de Troyes, William W. Kibler, Carleton W. Carroll
Fantastic adventures abound in those courtly romances: Erec and Enide, Cligés, The Knight of the Cart, The Knight with the Lion, and The tale of the Grail.
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Additional resources for Arthurian romances
1150), which contains much Celtic mythology. She is carried off by Melwas or Maheloas, lord of the œstiva regio (land of summer), to the Urbs Vitrea (City of Glass, alleged to be Glastonbury in Somerset). From there she is rescued by King Arthur with the aid of the Abbot of Glastonbury. However, this story is far removed from that by Chrétien and has no role for Lancelot. It is intriguing to speculate – but impossible to prove – that the Countess suggested the love relationship between Guinevere and Lancelot.
Proverbs and proverbial expressions occur in the other romances as well, where they are particularly prevalent in the monologues and dialogues. Chrétien’s use of humour and irony has been frequently noted, as has his ability to incorporate keenly observed realistic details into the most fantastic adventures. Like the dialogues, the descriptions of persons and objects are not rhetorical or lengthy, but are precise, lively and colourful. His portraits of feminine beauty, though they follow the typical patterns of description, nevertheless provide variety in their details.
Nat. 794 and 1450, that contain pseudo-historical accounts of ancient history, to which the Arthurian material was purportedly linked, or in manuscripts containing a wide variety of other courtly romances. His unfinished The Story of the Grail is found most frequently with its verse continuations (see Appendix). From manuscript evidence we know that both The Story of the Grail and The Knight of the Cart were left unfinished by Chrétien. Many believe that he abandoned The Knight of the Cart because he was dissatisfied with the subject matter, which may have been imposed on him by his patroness, Marie de Champagne; and most critics accept that The Story of the Grail was interrupted by Chrétien’s death, or by that of his patron, Philip of Alsace, Count of Flanders.
Arthurian romances by Chrétien de Troyes, William W. Kibler, Carleton W. Carroll