By Arthur Koestler
This booklet lines the historical past of the traditional Khazar Empire, a tremendous yet nearly forgotten energy in japanese Europe, which at the hours of darkness a while turned switched over to Judaism. Khazaria was once ultimately burnt up through the forces of Genghis Khan, yet facts shows that the Khazars themselves migrated to Poland and shaped the cradle of Western Jewry. To the overall reader the Khazars, who flourished from the seventh to eleventh century, could seem infinitely distant this present day. but they've got a detailed and unforeseen pertaining to our global, which emerges as Koestler recounts the attention-grabbing heritage of the traditional Khazar Empire. At in regards to the time that Charlemagne used to be Emperor within the West. The Khazars’ sway prolonged from the Black Sea to the Caspian, from the Caucasus to the Volga, they usually have been instrumental in preventing the Muslim onslaught opposed to Byzantium, the japanese jaw of the large pincer stream that during the West swept throughout northern Africa and into Spain.
Thereafter the Khazars chanced on themselves in a precarious place among the 2 significant global powers: the jap Roman Empire in Byzantium and the effective fans of Mohammed. As Koestler issues out, the Khazars have been the 3rd global in their day. they selected a shocking approach to resisting either the Western strain to turn into Christian and the japanese to undertake Islam. Rejecting either, they switched over to Judaism.
Mr. Koestler speculates concerning the final religion of the Khazars and their influence at the racial composition and social historical past of contemporary Jewry. He produces precise learn to help a conception which may make the time period ‘anti-Semitism’ develop into void of meaning.
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Extra info for Thirteenth Tribe: Khazar Empire and Its Heritage
Artamonov: Until the ninth century, the Khazars had no rivals to their supremacy in the regions north of the Black Sea and the adjoining steppe and forest regions of the Dnieper. The Khazars were the supreme masters of the southern half of Eastern Europe for a century and a hall, and presented a mighty bulwark, blocking the Ural-Caspian gateway from Asia into Europe. During this whole period, they held back the onslaught of the nomadic tribes from the East. Taking a bird's-eye view of the history of the great nomadic empires of the East, the Khazar kingdom occupies an intermediary position in time, size, and degree of civilization between the Hun and Avar Empires which preceded, and the Mongol Empire that succeeded it.
As to the Khazars," an Arab chronicler writes, "they are to the north of the inhabited earth towards the 7th clime, having over their heads the constellation of the Plough. Their land is cold and wet. Accordingly their complexions are white, their eyes blue, their hair flowing and predominantly reddish, their bodies large and their natures cold. " After a century of warfare, the Arab writer obviously had no great sympathy for the Khazars. Nor had the Georgian or Armenian scribes, whose countries, of a much older culture, had been repeatedly devastated by Khazar horsemen.
But they too were crushingly defeated (circa 641), and as a result the nation split into two: some of them migrated westward to the Danube, into the region of modern Bulgaria, others north-eastward to the middle Volga, the latter remaining under Khazar suzerainty. We shall frequently encounter both Danube Bulgars and Volga Bulgars in the course of this narrative. But before becoming a sovereign state, the Khazars still had to serve their apprenticeship under another short-lived power, the so-called West Turkish Empire, or Turkut kingdom.
Thirteenth Tribe: Khazar Empire and Its Heritage by Arthur Koestler